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Diabetes


Diabetes is of two types - 1. Diabetes mellitus & 2. Diabetes insipidus

Diabetes mellitus :  As per the WHO ,diabetes mellitus is defined as a heterogenous metabolic disorder characterised by common feature of chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbance of carbohydrate , protein and fat metabolism .

Etiologic classification of diabetes mellitus (as per the American Diabetes Association) :

1. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus ( 10 %)
(earlier called insulin dependent , or juvenile onset diabetes )
-Type 1A DM : Immune mediated
-Type 1B DM : Idiopathic

2. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus ( 80%)
(earlier called non-insulin dependent , or maturity-onset diabetes )

3. Other specific types of diabetes ( 10%)
-Genetic defect of ß-cell function due to mutations in various enzymes
-Genetic defect in insulin function
-Diseases of exocrine pancreas
-Endocrinopathies
-Drug or chemical induced
-Infections
-Other genetic syndromes like Down's syndrome , Turner's syndrome etc.

Diabetes Mellitus - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Diabetes is a chronic condition.

Diabetes can be caused by too little insulin (a hormone produced by the pancreas to control blood sugar), resistance to insulin, or both. DM exhibits wide geographic variation in incidence and prevalence diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin, an anabolic hormone. Diabetes mellitus is defined as fasting blood glucose of 126 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or more.

There are two basic forms:

Type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Formerly known as insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM), childhood diabetes or also known as juvenile diabetes, is characterized by loss of the insulin-producing beta cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas leading to a deficiency of insulin. It should be noted that there is no known preventative measure that can be taken against type 1 diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes appears most often in middle-aged.

Diabetes causes many changes in the body. Neuropathy (damage to the nerves) affects sensation to the feet, so that pain is not felt. Diabetes affects approximately 17 million people (about 8% of the population) in the United States. In addition, an estimated additional 12 million people in the United States have diabetes and don't even know it. Diabetes is the third leading cause of death in the United States after heart disease andcancer. Males are at greater risk in regions of high incidence, particularly older males, whose incidence rates often show seasonal variation. People with diabetes often develop bacterial and fungal infections, typically of the skin. When the levels of sugar in the blood are high, white blood cells cannot effectively fight infections. Diabetes is a major risk factor for stroke and coronary heart disease, which includes heart attack.

Serious medical illness and surgery produce a state of increased insulin resistance. Controlling your blood sugar is essential to feeling healthy and avoiding long-term complications of diabetes. Diet, exercise and weight reduction should be the cornerstone of management. The treatment of markedly symptomatic patients with newly discovered type 2 diabetes and glucose levels lower than 400 mg/dL is controversial. Medications used to treat diabetes include insulin. Medications such as thiazides, used to control high blood pressure, and niacin, used for high cholesterol, also may increase blood sugar. Everyone needs regular aerobic exercise, and people with diabetes are no exception. The good news is that the same exercises that are good for your heart and lungs also help lower your blood sugar levels. Drugs and foods known to affect the CYP3A4 system need to be used cautiously in patients treated with atorvastatin, lovastatin, or simvastatin because these agents are largely metabolized through that system.

Treatment for Diabetes Mellitus

Serious medical illness and surgery produce a state of increased insulin resistance.
Controlling your blood sugar is essential to feeling healthy and avoiding long-term complications of diabetes.
Diet, exercise and weight reduction should be the cornerstone of management.
Medications used to treat diabetes include insulin. Medications such as thiazides, used to control high blood pressure, and niacin, used for high cholesterol, also may increase blood sugar.
Drugs and foods known to affect the CYP3A4 system need to be used cautiously in patients treated with atorvastatin, lovastatin, or simvastatin because these agents are largely metabolized through that system.

Article written by : Juliet Cohen

Source: Health Guidance
 

© 2018 by Partha Sarathi(Director)