A 20-year-old man is involved in a motor vehicle accident which results in multiple blunt trauma and lacerations to his lower extremities. The left femoral artery is lacerated, and he incurs extensive blood loss and remains hypotensive for hours during transport to the emergency department. On admission, his hematocrit is 12%. Which of the following tissues is most likely to withstand the impact of these events with the least damage?
A Skeletal muscle
B Small intestinal epithelium
A 40-year-old woman has the sudden onset of severe abdominal pain. On physical examination she has diffuse tenderness in all abdominal quadrants, with marked guarding and muscular rigidity. She has laboratory findings that include serum AST of 43 U/L, ALT of 30 U/L, LDH 630 U/L, and lipase 415 U/L. An abdominal CT scan reveals peritoneal fluid collections and decreased attenuation along with enlargement of the pancreas. Which of the following cellular changes is most likely to accompany these findings?
A Coagulative necrosis
B Dry gangrene
C Fat necrosis
E Liquefactive necrosis
A 26-year-old man died from complications of destruction of the aortic valve by large, irregular vegetations from which Staphylococcus aureus was cultured. At autopsy, the spleen on sectioning grossly reveals the presence of a tan to white, wedge-shaped 1.5 x 3 cm lesion with base on the capsule. The splenic findings are most likely to result from which of the following cellular abnormalities?
A Coagulative necrosis
B Abscess formation
D Caseous necrosis
E Liquefactive necrosis
A 35-year-old woman developed increasing icterus over the last week of life. Laboratory studies had shown hyperammonemia. She is found at autopsy to have a 3500 gm liver with a uniform, yellow, greasy cut surface. No necrosis of hepatocytes is noted microscopically. This pathologic appearance of the liver most likely resulted from which of the following conditions?
A 22-year-old man develops marked right lower quadrant abdominal pain over the past day. On physical examination there is rebound tenderness on palpation over the right lower quadrant. Laparoscopic surgery is performed, and the appendix is swollen, erythematous, and partly covered by a yellowish exudate. It is removed, and a microscopic section shows infiltration with numerous neutrophils. The pain experienced by this patient is predominantly the result of the formation of which of the following two chemical mediators?
A Complement C3b and IgG
B Interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor
C Histamine and serotonin
D Prostaglandin and bradykinin
E Leukotriene and HPETE
A 40-year-old woman had bilateral silicone breast implants placed two years ago. Since that time, she has noted increased firmness with slight deformity of the breast on the left. The implants are removed, and there is evidence for leakage of the implant contents on the left. Which of the following cell types is most likely to be most characteristic of the inflammatory response in this situation?
A Mast cell
C Giant cell
E Plasma cell
A 40-year-old man incurs a burn injury to his hands and arms while working on a propane furnace. Over the next 3 weeks, the burned skin heals without the need for skin grafting. Which of the following is the most critical factor in determining whether the skin in the region of the burn will regenerate?
A Good cardiac output with tissue perfusion
B Persistence of skin appendages
C Maintenance of underlying connective tissue
D Diminished edema and erythema
E Granulation tissue formation
A 58-year-old woman has had a cough with fever for 3 days. A chest radiograph reveals infiltrates in the right lower lobe. A sputum culture grows Streptococcus pneumoniae. The clearance of these organisms from the lung parenchyma would be most effectively accomplished through generation of which of the following substances by the major inflammatory cell type responding to this infection?
A Platelet activating factor
E Hydrogen peroxide
A clinical study is performed of patients with pharyngeal infections. The most typical clinical course averages 3 days from the time of onset until the patient sees the physician. Most of these patients experience fever and chills. On physical examination, the most common findings include swelling, erythema, and pharyngeal purulent exudate. Which of the following types of inflammation did these patients most likely have?
A Granulomatous inflammation
B Acute inflammation
C Abscess formation
D Resolution of inflammation
E Chronic inflammation
A 56-year-old man has had increasing dyspnea for 6 years. He has no cough or fever. He had chronic exposure to inhalation of silica dust for many years in his job. A chest x-ray now shows increased interstitial markings and parenchymal 1 to 3 cm solid nodules. His pulmonary problems are most likely to be mediated through which of the following inflammatory processes?
A Neutrophilic infiltrates producing leukotrienes
B Foreign body giant cell formation
C Plasma cell synthesis of immunoglobulin
D Mast cell histamine release
E Macrophage elaboration of growth factors
A 20-year-old woman has premature labor with premature rupture of fetal membranes at 20 weeks gestation. Prior to that time, the pregnancy had been proceeding normally. A stillbirth occurs two days later. Microscopic examination of the normal-sized placenta reveals numerous neutrophils in the amnion and chorion, but no villitis. These events are most likely to be mediated by the effects from release of which of the following substances?
After two weeks in the hospital following a fall in which she incurred a fracture of her left femoral trochanter, a 76-year-old woman now has a left leg that is swollen, particularly her lower leg below the knee. She experiences pain on movement of this leg, and there is tenderness to palpation. Which of the following complications is most likely to occur next after these events?
A Gangrenous necrosis of the foot
B Hematoma of the thigh
C Disseminated intravascular coagulation
D Pulmonary thromboembolism
E Soft tissue sarcoma
A 40-year-old woman has had a chronic cough with fever and weight loss for the past month. A chest radiograph reveals multiple nodules from 1 to 4 cm in size, some of which demonstrate cavitation in the upper lobes. A sputum sample reveals the presence of acid fast bacilli. Which of the following cells is the most important in the development her lung lesions?
D Mast cell
A 20-year-old man has experienced painful urination for 4 days following spring break. A urethritis is suspected, and Neisseria gonorrheae is cultured. Numerous neutrophils are present in a smear of the exudate from the penile urethra. These neutrophils undergo diapedesis to reach the organisms. Release of which of the following chemical mediators is most likely to drive neutrophil exudation?
C Hageman factor
E Complement C5a
An episode of marked chest pain lasting 4 hours brings a 51-year-old man to the emergency room. He is found to have an elevated serum creatine kinase. An angiogram reveals a complete blockage of the left circumflex artery 2 cm from its origin. Which of the following substances would you most expect to be elaborated around the region of tissue damage in the next 3 days as an initial response to increase myocardial function and promote healing?
B Immunogloblulin G
C Complement component C3b
D Leukotriene B4
E Vascular endothelial growth factor
A 90-year-old woman has developed a fever and cough over the past 2 days. Staphylococcus aureus is cultured from her sputum. She receives a course of antibiotic therapy. Two weeks later she no longer has a productive cough, but she still has a fever. A chest radiograph reveals a 3 cm rounded density in the right lower lobe whose liquefied contents form a central air-fluid level. There are no surrounding infiltrates. Which of the following is the best description for this outcome of her pneumonia?
A Hypertrophic scar
B Abscess formation
D Bronchogenic carcinoma
E Chronic inflammation
A 35-year-old woman has been taking acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) for arthritis for the past 4 years. Her joint pain is temporarily reduced via this therapy. However, radiographs of her knees reveals continuing joint destruction with loss of articular cartilage and joint space narrowing. This pain reduction is most likely to be the result of diminishing which of the following chemical mediators?
A Leukotriene B4
E Hageman factor
A small sliver of wood becomes embedded in the finger of a 25-year-old man. He does not remove it, and over the next 3 days the area around the sliver becomes red, swollen, and tender. Neutrophils migrate into the injured tissue. Expression of which of the following substances on endothelial cells is most instrumental in promoting this inflammatory reaction?
A Interferon gamma
B Hageman factor
An inflammatory process that has continued for 3 months includes the transformation of tissue macrophages to epithelioid cells. There are also lymphocytes present. Over time, fibroblasts lay down collagen as the focus of inflammation heals. These events are most likely to occur as an inflammatory response to which of the following infectious agents?
A Mycobacterium tuberculosis
B Pseudomonas aeruginosa
D Giardia lamblia
E Treponema pallidum
A 37-year-old man has had nausea and vomiting for 5 weeks. He experienced an episode of hematemesis yesterday. On physical examination he has no abnormal findings. Upper GI endoscopy is performed, and there is a 1.5 cm diameter lesion in the gastric antrum with loss of the epithelial surface. These findings are most typical for which of the following pathologic processes?
A 17-year-old driver of a pickup truck is involved in a collision. He incurs blunt force abdominal trauma. In response to this injury, cells in tissues of the abdomen are stimulated to enter the G1 phase of the cell cycle from the G0 phase. Which of the following cell types is most likely to remain in G0 following this injury?
A Smooth muscle
C Skeletal muscle
A 19-year-old woman is in the early second trimester at 16 weeks gestation with her first pregnancy. On a routine prenatal visit, the nurse cannot detect fetal heart tones and an ultrasound reveals no fetal cardiac activity or fetal movement. The mother has noted no recent illness or other factors to account for this fetal demise. She is given a pharmacologic agent to induce abortion. By which of the following mechanisms is this induction most likely to be accomplished?
A Leukotriene-induced neutrophil aggregation
B Complement-induced hemolysis
C Histamine-induced edema
D Endotoxin-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation
E Prostaglandin-induced muscular contraction
A 45-year-old woman has had a chronic, non-productive cough for 3 months, along with intermittent fever. She has a chest radiograph that reveals multiple small parenchymal nodules along with hilar and cervical lymphadenopathy. A cervical lymph node biopsy is performed. Microscopic examination of the biopsy shows noncaseating granulomatous inflammation. Cultures for bacterial, fungal, and mycobacterial organisms are negative. Which of the following chemical mediators is most important in the development of her inflammatory response?
A Interferon gamma
C Complement C5a
E Prostaglandin E2
A 55-year-old man has a history of hypercholesterolemia with coronary artery disease and suffered a myocardial infarction 2 years ago. He now presents with crushing substernal chest pain. Which of the following laboratory tests is most useful in diagnosing the cause of his chest pain?
A Increased white blood cell count
B Elevated sedimentation rate
C Decreased serum complement
D Increased serum creatine kinase
E Decreased platelet count
F Increased serum cholesterol
A 15-year-old girl has had episodes of sneezing with watery eyes and runny nose for the past 2 weeks. On physical examination she has red, swollen nasal mucosal surfaces. She has had similar episodes each Spring and Summer when the amount of ragweed pollen in the air is high. Her symptoms are most likely to be mediated by the release of which of the following chemical mediators?
A Complement C3b
B Platelet activating factor (PAF)
C Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
E Immunoglobulin G
A 45-year-old man has been working hard all day long carrying loads of bricks to build a wall. He takes a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (ibuprofen). Which of the following processes is this drug most likely to diminish in his arms?
E Scar formation
Within minutes following a bee sting, a 37-year-old man develops marked respiratory stridor with dyspnea and wheezing. He also develops swelling and erythema seen in his arms and legs. An injection of epinephrine helps to reverse these events and he recovers within minutes. Which of the following chemical mediators is most important in the pathogenesis of this man's condition?
B Complement C5a
C Nitric oxide
D Tumor necrosis factor
A 72-year-old woman did not get a "flu" shot in the fall as recommended for older persons. In the wintertime, she became ill, as many people in her community did, with a respiratory illness that lasted for 3 weeks. During this illness, she had a fever with a non-productive cough, mild chest pain, myalgias, and headache. What was her chest radiograph most likely to have shown during this illness?
A 6 cm left hilar mass
B Bilateral interstitial infiltrates
C Marked hilar lymphadenopathy
D Left upper lobe consolidation
E Extensive pleural thickening with pleural effusions