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Wednesday, 20/06/2018, 4:13:39 PM
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Pharmacology 10


 
Renal pharmacology
 
Question # 1 (Multiple Answer) Blockade of the Na/K/2Cl co-transporter -- basis for diuretic effect:

A) torsemide (Demadex)
B) ethacrynic acid (Edecrin)
C) bumetanide (Bumex)
D) triamterene (Dyrenium)
E) mannitol

Question # 2 (Multiple Answer) Secreted by the renal organic base secretory system:

A) creatinine
B) procainamide (Procan SR, Pronestyl-SR)
C) choline

Question # 3 (Multiple Choice) Substances which could retard water reabsorption:

A) mannitol
B) high glucose levels
C) both
D) neither

Question # 4 (Multiple Answer) Distal convoluted tubule -- properties

A) impermeable to water
B) about 10% of filtered sodium load reabsorbed here.
C) calcium actively reabsorbed

Question # 5 (Multiple Choice) Localization of the renal organic base secretory system:

A) loop of Henle
B) early in middle segments of proximal tubule
C) collecting duct
D) distal convoluted tubule

Question # 6 (Multiple Choice) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor

A) furosemide (Lasix)
B) bumetanide (Bumex)
C) acetazolamide (Diamox)
D) chlorothiazide (Diuril)
E) spironolactone (Aldactone)

Question # 7 (Multiple Choice) About 35% of the filtered load of sodium chloride is reabsorbed here:

A) thin limb -- --loop of Henle
B) collecting duct
C) distal convoluted tubule
D) thick ascending limb -- loop of Henle
E) cortical collecting tubule

Question # 8 (Multiple Answer) Collecting tubule: properties --

A) 2%-5% sodium chloride reabsorption
B) final site for sodium chloride reabsorption
C) a site of action for mineralocorticoids
D) major site of potassium secretion
E) increased sodium delivery to the collecting tubule promotes potassium loss

Question # 9 (Multiple Choice) Location of the organic acid secretory system

A) distal tubule
B) collecting duct
C) middle third: proximal tubule
D) loop of Henle
E) macula densa

Question # 10 (Multiple Answer) Compound(s) secreted by the organic acid secretory system:

A) uric acid
B) some antibiotics
C) p-aminohippuric acid

Question # 11 (Multiple Choice) Mechanism of action: spironolactone (Aldactone)

A) through osmotic effects
B) through enzyme inhibition
C) through interaction with hormonal receptors

Question # 12 (Multiple Choice) Diuretics acting on specific membrane transport proteins:

A) loop diuretics
B) thiazides
C) amiloride (Midamor)
D) triamterene (Dyrenium)
E) all of the above

Question # 13 (True/False) The driving force for watery absorption by the thin limb of the loop of Henle is the hypertonic medullary fluid

A) true
B) false

Question # 14 (Multiple Answer) Diuretic mechanism(s):

A) through osmotic effects (preventing water reabsorption)
B) enzyme inhibition
C) interaction with hormonal receptors

Question # 15 (Multiple Choice) Renal Site where most filtered sodium bicarbonate is reabsorbed:

A) collecting duct
B) distal tubule
C) collecting tubule
D) loop of Henle
E) proximal tubule

Question # 16 (Multiple Answer) Loop diuretics -- effects on ionic excretion:

A) increased sodium excretion
B) decreased magnesium loss
C) increased calcium loss
D) decreased potassium loss

Question # 17 (Multiple Choice) Mechanism of action: acetazolamide (Diamox)

A) through osmotic effects
B) through enzyme inhibition
C) interacting with hormonal receptors

Question # 18 (Multiple Choice) Pharmacological blockade of sodium and chloride cotransport at the distal convoluted tubule:

A) bumetanide (Bumex)
B) furosemide (Lasix)
C) chlorothiazide (Diuril)
D) triamterene (Dyrenium)

Question # 19 (Multiple Choice) Renal site where most water is reabsorbed:

A) medullary collecting tubule
B) collecting duct
C) early portions of the proximal tubule
D) loop of Henle
E) distal tubule
Answers
 
Question # 1 (Multiple Answer) Blockade of the Na/K/2Cl co-transporter -- basis for diuretic effect:

(A) torsemide (Demadex)

(B) ethacrynic acid (Edecrin)

(C) bumetanide (Bumex)


Question # 2 (Multiple Answer) Secreted by the renal organic base secretory system:

(A) creatinine

(B) procainamide (Procan SR, Pronestyl-SR)

(C) choline


Question # 3 (Multiple Choice) Substances which could retard water reabsorption:

Answer: (C) both


Question # 4 (Multiple Answer) Distal convoluted tubule -- properties

(A) impermeable to water

(B) about 10% of filtered sodium load reabsorbed here.

(C) calcium actively reabsorbed


Question # 5 (Multiple Choice) Localization of the renal organic base secretory system:

Answer: (B) early in middle segments of proximal tubule


Question # 6 (Multiple Choice) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor

Answer: (C) acetazolamide (Diamox)

Question # 7 (Multiple Choice) About 35% of the filtered load of sodium chloride is reabsorbed here:

Answer: (D) thick ascending limb -- loop of Henle


Question # 8 (Multiple Answer) Collecting tubule: properties --

(A) 2%-5% sodium chloride reabsorption

(B) final site for sodium chloride reabsorption

(C) a site of action for mineralocorticoids

(D) major site of potassium secretion

(E) increased sodium delivery to the collecting tubule promotes potassium loss


Question # 9 (Multiple Choice) Location of the organic acid secretory system

Answer: (C) middle third: proximal tubule


Question # 10 (Multiple Answer) Compound(s) secreted by the organic acid secretory system:

(A) uric acid

(B) some antibiotics

(C) p-aminohippuric acid


Question # 11 (Multiple Choice) Mechanism of action: spironolactone (Aldactone)

Answer: (C) through interaction with hormonal receptors


Question # 12 (Multiple Choice) Diuretics acting on specific membrane transport proteins:

Answer: (E) all of the above


Question # 13 (True/False) The driving force for watery absorption by the thin limb of the loop of Henle is the hypertonic medullary fluid

Answer: True

Question # 14 (Multiple Answer) Diuretic mechanism(s):

(A) through osmotic effects (preventing water reabsorption)

(B) enzyme inhibition

(C) interaction with hormonal receptors



Question # 15 (Multiple Choice) Renal Site where most filtered sodium bicarbonate is reabsorbed:

Answer: (E) proximal tubule


Question # 16 (Multiple Answer) Loop diuretics -- effects on ionic excretion:

(A) increased sodium excretion

(C) increased calcium loss



Question # 17 (Multiple Choice) Mechanism of action: acetazolamide (Diamox)

Answer: (B) through enzyme inhibition


Question # 18 (Multiple Choice) Pharmacological blockade of sodium and chloride cotransport at the distal convoluted tubule:

Answer: (C) chlorothiazide (Diuril)


Question # 19 (Multiple Choice) Renal site where most water is reabsorbed:

Answer: (C) early portions of the proximal tubule

Parkinson's disease
 
Question # 1 (Multiple Choice) Reason that dopamine itself is not used to treat in Parkinson's disease:

A) too expensive
B) the problem is cholinergic in nature
C) dopamine does not cross the blood-brain barrier
D) levodopa has a higher affinity for the D2 receptor

Question # 2 (Multiple Choice) Dominantly inherited disease: associated with progressive chorea and dementia; related to neurotransmitter imbalance

A) Wilson's disease
B) tardive dyskinesia
C) Tourette's syndrome
D) Huntington's disease
E) Shy-Drager syndrome

Question # 3 (Multiple Choice) Antiviral drug found to have anti-Parkinson's properties:

A) procyclidine
B) pergolide
C) amantadine
D) levodopa
E) reserpine

Question # 4 (True/False) Benefits of dopaminergicanti--Parkinson's drugs probably due to stimulation of D2 dopamine receptors

A) true
B) false

Question # 5 (Multiple Choice) Irregular, unpredictable, involuntary muscle contractions:

A) athetosis
B) dystonia
C) tics
D) chorea
E) akinesia

Question # 6 (Multiple Choice) Dopamine agonist ergot derivative -- stimulates D1 & D2 receptors

A) levodopa
B) amantadine
C) pergolide
D) selegiline
E) trihexyphenidyl

Question # 7 (Multiple Choice) Characterized by chronic, multiple tics:

A) Parkinson's disease
B) Wilson's disease
C) Shy-Drager syndrome
D) Tourette's syndrome
E) all of the above

Question # 8 (Multiple Choice) Percentage of levodopa that enters the brain unaltered

A) 1-3%
B) 5-10%
C) 15-30%
D) > 50%

Question # 9 (Multiple Answer) Effective in managing essential tremor

A) propranolol
B) metoprolol
C) primidone
D) diazepam
E) chlordiazepoxide

Question # 10 (Multiple Choice) First-line anti-Parkinson drug; also used to treat hyperprolactinemia at lower doses

A) amantadine
B) levodopa
C) bromocriptine
D) selegiline
E) benztropine mesylate

Question # 11 (Multiple Choice) Carbidopa is useful in the management of Parkinson's disease because it is an:

A) effective D2 agonist
B) effective D2 antagonist
C) effective peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor
D) effective central decarboxylase inhibitor
E) :effective competitor at the GABA receptor
 
Answers
 
Question # 1 (Multiple Choice) Reason that dopamine itself is not used to treat in Parkinson's disease:

Answer: (C) dopamine does not cross the blood-brain barrier



Question # 2 (Multiple Choice) Dominantly inherited disease: associated with progressive chorea and dementia; related to neurotransmitter imbalance

Answer: (D) Huntington's disease


Question # 3 (Multiple Choice) Antiviral drug found to have anti-Parkinson's properties:

Answer: (C) amantadine

Anti-Parkinson mechanism of action unclear; knack by affecting dopamine reuptake, synthesis, or release


Question # 4 (True/False) Benefits of dopaminergicanti--Parkinson's drugs probably due to stimulation of D2 dopamine receptors

Answer: True


Question # 5 (Multiple Choice) Irregular, unpredictable, involuntary muscle contractions:

Answer: (D) chorea

chorea: may be hereditary, secondary to non--neurological disease; drug-induced


Question # 6 (Multiple Choice) Dopamine agonist ergot derivative -- stimulates D1 & D2 receptors

Answer: (C) pergolide

pergolide & bromocriptine are ergot alkaloid derivatives useful in treating Parkinson's disease


Question # 7 (Multiple Choice) Characterized by chronic, multiple tics:

Answer: (D) Tourette's syndrome


Question # 8 (Multiple Choice) Percentage of levodopa that enters the brain unaltered

Answer: (A) 1-3%

most levodopa is metabolized extracerebrally



Question # 9 (Multiple Answer) Effective in managing essential tremor

(A) propranolol

(B) metoprolol

(C) primidone


probably a beta-adrenergic receptor dysfunction; anti-Parkinson agents, diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, mephenesin not useful


Question # 10 (Multiple Choice) First-line anti-Parkinson drug; also used to treat hyperprolactinemia at lower doses

Answer: (C) bromocriptine

ergot derivative; dopamine agonist, probably at D2 receptors



Question # 11 (Multiple Choice) Carbidopa is useful in the management of Parkinson's disease because it is an:

Answer: (C) effective peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor
 
 
 

© 2018 by Partha Sarathi(Director)