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Thursday, 15/11/2018, 2:12:39 PM
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Pharmacology 3


     
 
 
Pharmacokinetics
 
Question # 1 (Multiple Answer) Concerning oral administration -- disadvantages

A) least economical
B) drug taken orally may cause emesis
C) drug taken orally may be destroyed by gastric acidity
D) drug taken orally may be metabolized by gastrointestinal flora
E) drug taken orally may be in consistently absorbed due to the presence of food

Question # 2 (Multiple Answer) Typical properties of carrier-mediated drug transport:

A) non-saturable
B) active transport
C) energy requiring
D) inhibitable

Question # 3 (Multiple Choice) Driving force in drug movement in aqueous diffusion model:

A) active transport-- energy requiring
B) facilitated transport
C) drug concentration gradient

Question # 4 (Multiple Choice) Renal excretion factor most likely to be sensitive to drug ionization state:

A) glomerular filtration
B) passive tubular reabsorption

Question # 5 (Multiple Choice) Drug(s) which exhibit(s) a high hepatic" first-pass" effect:

A) lidocaine
B) propranolol
C) both
D) neither

Question # 6 (Multiple Choice) Permanently charged amine form:

A) primary amine
B) secondary amine
C) tertiary amine
D) quaternary amine

Question # 7 (Multiple Answer) For high extraction-ratio drugs, patient to patient bioavailability may vary due to differences in:

A) hepatic function
B) blood flow
C) the presence of hepatic disease

Question # 8 (Multiple Answer) Factors associated with drug absorption that can result in incomplete absorption

A) drug metabolism by gastrointestinal flora
B) drug hydrophilicity (opposite of lipophilicity)
C) drug instability in gastric acid
D) presence of food in the GI tract
E) drug-drug interactions

Question # 9 (Multiple Answer) Drug characteristics contributing to reliable transdermal drug absorption:

A) molecular weight less than 1000
B) drug does not cause histamine release
C) the daily drug requirement is less than 10 mg
D) in saturated aqueous solution, the pH range is 5-9

Question # 10 (Multiple Choice) Concerning parenteral drug administration:

A) less predictable compared to oral administration route
B) not acceptable for unconscious patients
C) rate of drug systemic absorption insensitive to drug solubility in interstitial fluid
D) rate of systemic drug absorption following parenteral administration depends on absorbing capillary membrane surface area

Question # 11 (Multiple Answer) Pharmacokinetic advantages associated with transdermal drug delivery:

A) relatively constant, sustained therapeutic plasma drug concentrations
B) commonly low side-effect incidence
C) good patient compliance

Question # 12 (Multiple Choice) Drugs for which "first-pass" pulmonary uptake may exceed 65% of injected dose:

A) fentanyl
B) alfentanil
C) sufentanil
D) meperidine
E) all of the above

Question # 13 (Multiple Answer) Roots of administration that avoid "first-pass" hepatic effects:

A) sublingual
B) oral
C) transdermal
D) lower rectal suppositories
E) inhalation

Question # 14 (Multiple Choice) Drugs least likely to penetrate across membranes:

A) protein-bound drugs
B) charged drugs
C) neutral drugs

Question # 15 (Multiple Answer) Available for transdermal drug delivery:

A) scopolamine
B) fentanyl
C) nitroglycerin

Question # 16 (Multiple Answer) Concerning "first pass" elimination:

A) drug is first transported across the gut wall into the portal circulation
B) drug metabolism may occur in the intestinal wall
C) sometimes extensive drug metabolism may occur in the liver
D) the liver may excrete drug into the bile
E) first-pass effects may reduce drug bioavailability

Question # 17 (Multiple Answer) Factor(s) which effect a drug's volume of distribution:

A) patient's gender
B) patien'ts age
C) presence of disease
D) drug pKa
E) extent of drug-plasma protein binding

Question # 18 (Multiple Choice) Two most important sites for drug elimination:

A) pulmonary and liver
B) liver and gastrointestinal tract
C) kidney and liver
D) skin and liver
E) pulmonary and kidney

Question # 19 (Multiple Choice) Concerning transfer of basic drugs such as nonionized local anesthetics from mother to fetus:

A) fetal pH is higher than maternal pH
B) in fetal distress alkalosis contributes to local anesthetic accumulation
C) concerning maternal blood: fetal blood -- gradient is maintained for continual local anesthetic transfer from maternal circulation to fetal circulation

Question # 20 (Multiple Answer) Characteristics of renal drug excretion:

A) nearly all drugs are filtered at the glomerulus
B) drugs which are weak acids are excreted faster in acidic urinary pH
C) drugs which are weak base is our excreted faster in alkaline urinary pH
D) body fluids where pH differences from blood pH may favor on and trapping include breast milk and aqueous humor (eye)

Answers
 
Question # 1 (Multiple Answer) Concerning oral administration -- disadvantages

(B) drug taken orally may cause emesis

(C) drug taken orally may be destroyed by gastric acidity

(D) drug taken orally may be metabolized by gastrointestinal flora

(E) drug taken orally may be in consistently absorbed due to the presence of food


Question # 2 (Multiple Answer) Typical properties of carrier-mediated drug transport:

(B) active transport

(C) energy requiring

(D) inhibitable


Question # 3 (Multiple Choice) Driving force in drug movement in aqueous diffusion model:

Answer: (C) drug concentration gradient


Question # 4 (Multiple Choice) Renal excretion factor I most likely to be sensitive to drug ionization state:

Answer: (B) passive tubular reabsorption


Question # 5 (Multiple Choice) Drug(s) which exhibit(s) a high hepatic" first-pass" effect:

Answer: (C) both


Question # 6 (Multiple Choice) Permanently charged amine form:

Answer: (D) quaternary amine


Question # 7 (Multiple Answer) For high extraction-ratio drugs, patient to patient bioavailability may vary due to differences in:

(A) hepatic function

(B) blood flow

(C) the presence of hepatic disease


Question # 8 (Multiple Answer) Factors associated with drug absorption that can result in incomplete absorption

(A) drug metabolism by gastrointestinal flora

(B) drug hydrophilicity (opposite of lipophilicity)

(C) drug instability in gastric acid

(D) presence of food in the GI tract

(E) drug-drug interactions


Question # 9 (Multiple Answer) Drug characteristics contributing to reliable transdermal drug absorption:

(A) molecular weight less than 1000

(B) drug does not cause histamine release

(C) the daily drug requirement is less than 10 mg

(D) in saturated aqueous solution, the pH range is 5-9


Question # 10 (Multiple Choice) Concerning parenteral drug administration:

Answer: (D) rate of systemic drug absorption following parenteral administration depends on absorbing capillary membrane surface area


Question # 11 (Multiple Answer) Pharmacokinetic advantages associated with transdermal drug delivery:

(A) relatively constant, sustained therapeutic plasma drug concentrations

(B) commonly low side-effect incidence

(C) good patient compliance


Question # 12 (Multiple Choice) Drugs for which "first-pass" pulmonary uptake may exceed 65% of injected dose:

Answer: (E) all of the above


Question # 13 (Multiple Answer) Roots of administration that avoid "first-pass" hepatic effects:

(A) sublingual

(C) transdermal

(D) lower rectal suppositories

(E) inhalation


Question # 14 (Multiple Choice) Drugs least likely to penetrate across membranes:

Answer: (A) protein-bound drugs


Question # 15 (Multiple Answer) Available for transdermal drug delivery:

(A) scopolamine

(B) fentanyl

(C) nitroglycerin


Question # 16 (Multiple Answer) Concerning "first pass" elimination:

(A) drug is first transported across the gut wall into the portal circulation

(B) drug metabolism may occur in the intestinal wall

(C) sometimes extensive drug metabolism may occur in the liver

(D) the liver may excrete drug into the bile

(E) first-pass effects may reduce drug bioavailability


Question # 17 (Multiple Answer) Factor(s) which effect a drug's volume of distribution:

(A) patient's gender

(B) patien'ts age

(C) presence of disease

(D) drug pKa

(E) extent of drug-plasma protein binding


Question # 18 (Multiple Choice) Two most important sites for drug elimination:

Answer: (C) kidney and liver


Question # 19 (Multiple Choice) Concerning transfer of basic drugs such as nonionized local anesthetics from mother to fetus:

Answer: (C) concerning maternal blood: fetal blood -- gradient is maintained for continual local anesthetic transfer from maternal circulation to fetal circulation


Question # 20 (Multiple Answer) Characteristics of renal drug excretion:

(A) nearly all drugs are filtered at the glomerulus

(D) body fluids where pH differences from blood pH may favor on and trapping include breast milk and aqueous humor (eye)
 
    
 
 
 

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