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Wednesday, 21/02/2018, 3:54:09 AM
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Pharmacology 4


     
 
Drugs acting on the eye
 
1. Direct-acting cholinergic agonists include:
a. pilocarpine
b. echothiophate
iodide
c. carbachol
d. tropicamide
e. atropine
2. The ocular effects of prostaglandins include:
a. breakdown of blood-aqueous barrier
b. miosis
c. conjunctival hyperaemia
d. eyelid retraction
e. ocular hypertension
3. True statements about carbonic anhydrase inhibitors include:
a. at least 50% of the carbonic anhydrase needs to be inhibited before the intraocular pressure shows a significant drop
b. they inhibits carbonic anhydrase found in the non- pigmentary ciliary epithelium.
c. shallowing of the anterior chamber is a feature
d. transient hypermetropia is a feature
e. it can cause thinning of the cornea if given topically
4. The effect of pilocarpine include:
a. increased incidence of retinal tear
b. increased tension in the zonules
c. contraction of the ciliary body
d. increased thickness of the lens
e. increased permeability of the iris vessels
5. Phenylephrine:
a. directly stimulates the alpha-adrenergic receptors
b. affects the accommodation
c. stops the pupil response to bright light
d. causes mydriasis which does not respond to pilocarpine
e. causes rebound miosis
6.The following are true about physostigmine:
a. it is a reversible cholinesterase
b. it does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier
c. it acts on the muscarinic receptors
d. it acts on the nicotinic receptors
e. it causes miosis
7.Physostigmine:
a. causes accommodative spasm
b. causes conjunctival vasoconstriction
c. increases the intraocular pressure
d. causes twitching of the eyelids
e. can be used in infestation caused by pubic lice
8 Pilocarpine:
a. is an alkaloid derived from plant
b. is a direct acting muscarinic agonist
c. causes contraction of the longitudinal muscles of the ciliary body
d. worsens myopia
e. has a greater effect on patients with blue iris than brown iris.
9 Cocaine:
a. decreases conduction of nerve impulses
b. has an anaesthetic effect on the cornea
c. is a direct stimulator of the adrenergic receptors
d. causes tachycardia
e. causes increased blood pressure .
 
10. Mydriasis occurs with:
a. thymoxamine
b. guanethidine
c. carbachol
d. neostigmine
e. ecothiophate
 
G.I. Drugs
 
Question # 1 (Multiple Choice) Relapse rate for do although ulcer following monotherapy treatment with H2 receptor blockers:

A) 95 %
B) 75%
C) 50%
D) 15%
E) 5%

Question # 2 (Multiple Answer) Physiological stimulation gastric acid secretion -- phases associated with food intake:

A) cephalic phase
B) gastric phase
C) intestinal phase

Question # 3 (Multiple Answer) Physiological/pathophysiological effects of Helicobacter pylori:

A) proinflammatory
B) degradation of glycoprotein-lipid mucus layer complexes
C) production of damaging bacterial proteins
D) causes active, chronic gastritis

Question # 4 (Multiple Choice) Acid secretion phase, following food intake, defined by stimulation of mechanical and chemical gastric wall receptors by luminal contents:

A) cephalic phase
B) gastric phase
C) intestinal phase

Question # 5 (Multiple Choice) Mechanism(s) by which somatostatin reduces gastrin release:

A) inhibits parietal cells accretion
B) inhibits histamine release by enterochromaffin-like cells
C) both
D) neither

Question # 6 (Multiple Choice) Positive factor: Zollinger-Ellison syndrome --

A) Helicobacter pylori
B) gastrin-secreting islet cell tumor
C) both
D) neither

Question # 7 (Multiple Choice) Pathogenic factor(s) in duodenal ulcer:

A) COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
B) genetic factor
C) cigarette smoking
D) alcoholic cirrhosis
E) all of the above

Question # 8 (Multiple Answer) Example(s) of "protective factor(s)" in peptic ulcer disease:

A) gastric mucus
B) prostaglandins
C) pepsins
D) bicarbonate
E) Helicobacter pylori

Question # 9 (True/False) There exists a direct correlation between pepsinogen I serum concentrations and maximal gastric acid secretion:

A) true
B) false

Question # 10 (Multiple Choice) Peptic ulcer classification:

A) duodenal
B) gastric
C) both
D) neither

Question # 11 (Multiple Answer) Characteristic(s) of gastric mucosal acid secretion:

A) oxidative dephosphorylation dependent
B) from parietal cells founded in mucosal glands of fundusof the stomach
C) stimulated by muscarinic cholinergic system (parietal cell innervation)
D) most potent stimulant -- histamine direct action

Question # 12 (Multiple Answer) Activation of these/this receptor(s) on basolateral parietal cells inhibit(s) gastric acid secretion

A) histamine
B) gastrin
C) prostaglandins
D) acetylcholine

Question # 13 (Multiple Choice) Relapse rate for duodenalulcer following H. pylori eradication:

A) 90%
B) 75%
C) 50%
D) 15%
E) 5%

Question # 14 (Multiple Answer) Histamine and gastric acid secretion:

A) released from enterochromaffin-like cells
B) release enhanced by increased cholinergic activity
C) most important gastric acid secretion stimulant

Question # 15 (Multiple Answer) Inhibition of basal acid secretion:

A) cimetidine (Tagamet)
B) histamine
C) nizatidine (Axid)
D) ranitidine (Zantac)
E) famotidine (Pepcid)

Question # 16 (Multiple Choice) Location(s) of histamine in gastric mucosa:

A) enterochromaffin-like cells (ECL)
B) mast cell cytoplasmic granules
C) both
D) neither

Question # 17 (Multiple Choice) Ranitidine (Zantac) and gastric acid secretion:

A) inhibits basal acid secretion
B) inhibits secretion in response to vagal stimulation or feeding
C) both
D) neither

Question # 18 (Multiple Choice) Example(s) of "aggressive factors" in peptic ulcer disease:

A) gastric acid
B) pepsin
C) both
D) neither

Question # 19 (Multiple Answer) Increased incidence of duodenal ulcer associated with:

A) chronic renal failure
B) alcoholic cirrhosis
C) renal transplantation
D) systemic mastocytosis
E) hyperparathyroidism

Question # 20 (Multiple Answer) Basolateral parietal cell membranes contained these receptor types:

A) gastrin
B) acetylcholine
C) prostaglandins
D) histamine
 
Answers
 
Question # 1 (Multiple Choice) Relapse rate for do although ulcer following monotherapy treatment with H2 receptor blockers:

Answer: (B) 75%


Question # 2 (Multiple Answer) Physiological stimulation gastric acid secretion -- phases associated with food intake:

(A) cephalic phase

(B) gastric phase

(C) intestinal phase


Question # 3 (Multiple Answer) Physiological/pathophysiological effects of Helicobacter pylori:

(A) proinflammatory

(B) degradation of glycoprotein-lipid mucus layer complexes

(C) production of damaging bacterial proteins

(D) causes active, chronic gastritis


Question # 4 (Multiple Choice) Acid secretion phase, following food intake, defined by stimulation of mechanical and chemical gastric wall receptors by luminal contents:

Answer: (B) gastric phase


Question # 5 (Multiple Choice) Mechanism(s) by which somatostatin reduces gastrin release:

Answer: (C) both


Question # 6 (Multiple Choice) Positive factor: Zollinger-Ellison syndrome --

Answer: (C) both


Question # 7 (Multiple Choice) Pathogenic factor(s) in duodenal ulcer:

Answer: (E) all of the above


Question # 8 (Multiple Answer) Example(s) of "protective factor(s)" in peptic ulcer disease:

(A) gastric mucus

(B) prostaglandins

(D) bicarbonate


Question # 9 (True/False) There exists a direct correlation between pepsinogen I serum concentrations and maximal gastric acid secretion:

Answer: True


Question # 10 (Multiple Choice) Peptic ulcer classification:

Answer: (C) both

Question # 11 (Multiple Answer) Characteristic(s) of gastric mucosal acid secretion:

(A) oxidative dephosphorylation dependent

(B) from parietal cells founded in mucosal glands of fundusof the stomach

(C) stimulated by muscarinic cholinergic system (parietal cell innervation)

most potent: gastrin


Question # 12 (Multiple Answer) Activation of these/this receptor(s) on basolateral parietal cells inhibit(s) gastric acid secretion

(C) prostaglandins



Question # 13 (Multiple Choice) Relapse rate for duodenalulcer following H. pylori eradication:

Answer: (D) 15%


Question # 14 (Multiple Answer) Histamine and gastric acid secretion:

(A) released from enterochromaffin-like cells

(B) release enhanced by increased cholinergic activity

(C) most important gastric acid secretion stimulant


Question # 15 (Multiple Answer) Inhibition of basal acid secretion:

(A) cimetidine (Tagamet)

(C) nizatidine (Axid)

(D) ranitidine (Zantac)

(E) famotidine (Pepcid)


Question # 16 (Multiple Choice) Location(s) of histamine in gastric mucosa:

Answer: (C) both


Question # 17 (Multiple Choice) Ranitidine (Zantac) and gastric acid secretion:

Answer: (C) both


Question # 18 (Multiple Choice) Example(s) of "aggressive factors" in peptic ulcer disease:

Answer: (C) both


Question # 19 (Multiple Answer) Increased incidence of duodenal ulcer associated with:

(A) chronic renal failure

(B) alcoholic cirrhosis

(C) renal transplantation

(D) systemic mastocytosis

(E) hyperparathyroidism


Question # 20 (Multiple Answer) Basolateral parietal cell membranes contained these receptor types:

(A) gastrin

(B) acetylcholine

(C) prostaglandins

(D) histamine
 
     
 
 
 

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