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Sunday, 19/08/2018, 6:22:28 PM
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Physiology 3


     
 
11. Total plasma calcium:
a) increases with phosphate
b) increases with a rise in albumin,
c) changes its degree of ionisation with pH changes
d) is decreased in osteoporosis
e) is affected by vitamin D
 
12. There is increased intestinal motility with:
a) increased intraluminal pressure
b) anticholinesterase drugs
c) sympathetic block to T4
d) stimulation of the splanchnic nerves
e) increased circulating adrenaline
 
13. A healthy adult breathing an FIO2 of 0.1 will:
a) have a decreased cardiac output
b) have a normal PaO2
c) have a changed alveolar PCO2
d) have an unchanged respiratory rate
e) initially have a fall in pH
 
14. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter at:
a) sweat glands
b) the adrenal medulla
c) the parotid gland
d) parasympathetic ganglia
e) the neuromuscular junction
 
15. Insulin:
a) has the same effect on blood sugar as growth hormone
b) inhibits entry of potassium into cells
c) facilitates protein anabolism
d) increases deposition of fats
e) secretion is affected by catecholamines
 
ANSWERS 11.FTTFT 12.TTTFF 13.FFTFF 14.TTTTT 15.FFTTT
 
16. In a normal resting subject, a bradycardia would be expected following:
a) an increase in carotid sinus pressure
b) an increase in right atrial pressure
c) application of pressure to the eyeball
d) the release of a Valsalva manoevre
e) inspiration
 
17. The velocity of conduction of a nerve action potential:
a) is inversely related to the cross-sectional area of the axon 
b) is faster in a myelinated fibre than in an unmyelinated one
c) is decreased by cooling the nerve
d) can exceed 100 m/s in humans
e) is highest in pre-ganglionic autonomic fibres
 
18. The placenta:
a) transports glucose from maternal to foetal blood by facilitated diffusion
b) can synthesize glycogen
c) actively transports oxygen from maternal to foetal blood
d) allows protein molecules to pass from maternal to foetal blood by pinocytosis
e) secretes oestradiol
 
19. Oxytocin:
a) stimulates production of milk
b) stimulates ejection of milk
c) release is stimulated by dilatation of the cervix
d) is synthesized in the anterior pituitary
e) produces more powerful uterine contraction in the presence of progesterone
 
20. Aldosterone:
a) production increases with a fall in plasma osmolality
b) production decreases with a fall in blood volume
c) production decreases with a rise in plasma renin level
d) increases urinary potassium excretion
e) may be produced by tumours of the adrenal cortex
 
ANSWERS 16.TFTTF 17.FTTTF 18.TFFFT 19.FTTFF 20.FFFTT
 

1. Adrenaline
a) is secreted by the adrenal cortex
b) decreases systemic vascular resistance at low doses
c) decreases pulmonary vascular resistance
d) constricts the pupil
e) acts only at beta-1 receptors
 
2. A typical mammalian motor neurone:
a) innervates only one skeletal muscle cell
b) is myelinated
c) has its cell body in the ventral (anterior) horn of the spinal cord
d) might receive an input directly from Group Ia afferent fibres in the spinal cord
e) would be stimulated by application of glycine to its cell body
 
3. The vagus nerve:
a) has little direct effect on the strength of ventricular contraction
b) contains afferent and efferent fibres
c) contains parasympathetic post-ganglionic fibres
d) contains fibres which regulate gastric acid secretion
e) has a role in bladder emptying
 
4. Vital capacity:
a) is the volume of air expired from full inspiration to full expiration
b) increases gradually with age in adults
c) is greater in men than in women of similar age and height
d) is equal to the sum of the inspiratory and expiratory reserve volumes
e) may be measured by spirometry
 
5. Hyperventilation in a normal subject for 24 hours will produce a:
a) fall in PaCO2
b) rise in PaCO2
c) rise in ionised calcium
d) fall in cerebrospinal fluid bicarbonate
e) rise in plasma bicarbonate
 
ANSWERS 1.FTTFF 2.FTTTF 3.TTFTF 4.TFTFT 5.TFFFF
6. The blood-brain barrier:
a) results in certain molecules in the blood taking longer to equilibrate with tissue fluid in the brain than with tissue fluid elsewhere
b) permits CO2 to pass freely
c) is more permeable to water-soluble substances than fat-soluble substances
d) is more permeable in neonates than in adults e) is readily crossed by dopamine
 
7. A reflex action:
a) may be carried out by skeletal, smooth or cardiac muscle or by glands
b) is not influenced by higher centres in the brain
c) results from activity in at least two central nervous synapses in series
d) may involve simultaneous contraction of some skeletal muscles and relaxation of others
e) can be monosynaptic or polysynaptic
 
8. Platelets:
a) are produced in the bone marrow
b) increase in number after tissue damage
c) have a small nucleus
d) alter their shape when they make contact with collagen
e) are activated by ADP and thrombin
 
9. The pressure:
a) drop across the major veins is similar to that across the major arteries
b) drop across the hepatic portal bed is similar to that across the splenic vascular bed
c) in the hepatic portal vein is higher than that in the inferior vena cava
d) drop across the vascular bed in the foot is greater when standing than when lying down
e) drop across the pulmonary circulation is the same as across the systemic circulation
 
10. Athletes differ from normal individuals in having:
a) a higher resting cardiac output
b) a higher resting heart rate
c) a decreased muscle mass
d) a higher maximum oxygen consumption
e) increased muscular efficiency at high blood lactate levels
 
ANSWERS 6.TTFTF 7.TFFTT 8.TTFTT 9.FFTFF 10.FFFTT
      
 
 
 

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