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Physiology 4

1. Stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system:
a) increases the heart rate
b) decreases the rate of gastric emptying
c) dilates the pupil
d) causes vasoconstriction
e) causes contraction of the detrusor muscle in the bladder
2. Pregnancy at term is associated with a:
a) 20% decrease in red cell mass
b) rise in cardiac output
c) fall in PaCO2
d) fall in haematocrit
e) low protein-bound iodine
3. The P5O is:
a) the oxygen saturation when the arterial partial pressure of oxygen is 50 mmHg
b) the arterial oxygen tension when haemoglobin is 50% saturated
c) an indicator of the position of the oxygen dissociation curve
d) raised in foetal blood
e) lowered in chronic anaemia
4. In a healthy adult human heart the:
a) left ventricular end-systolic volume is approximately 30 ml
b) first heart sound coincides with the onset of ventricular systole
c) stroke volume is approximately 70 ml
d) left ventricular end-diastolic pressure is about 50 mmHg
e) second heart sound is caused by closure of the aortic and pulmonary valves
5. Renin:
a) is released from granules in the juxtaglomerular cells of the afferent arteriole
b) levels in the blood increase in response to a fall in plasma sodium concentration
c) levels in the blood decrease when renal perfusion is decreased
d) release is enhanced by angiotensin II
e) release is inhibited by antidiuretic hormone

1. The following are secreted from the adrenal cortex:
a) testosterone
b) aldosterone
c) angiotensin
d) noradrenaline
e) deoxycorticosterone
2. Aldosterone:
a) secretion increases in response to a fall in blood volume
b) is a polypeptide
c) produces an increase in renal arterial pressure
d) produces a fall in urine volume
e) increases the reabsorption of sodium
3. Cerebrospinal fluid:
a) is actively secreted by the choroid plexus
b) is the major nutrition source of the brain
c) has the same pH as arterial blood
d) contains virtually no glucose
e) has a higher chloride level than plasma
4. Red blood cell production:
a) increases during acclimatisation to altitude
b) can occur in the spleen
c) is dependent on normal gastric secretory activity
d) is stimulated by hypercarbia
e) is dependent on ervthropoietin
5. Bile:
a) salts contribute to the solubility of cholesterol in the bile
b) contains bilirubin mainly in the unconjugated form
c) contributes more than pancreatic secretion to the neutralisation of acid from the stomach
d) becomes more alkaline following concentration in the gall bladder
e) is produced at a rate of approximately 2000 ml/day

1. Carbonic anhydrase plays a role in the:
a) production of HCl by the parietal cells of the stomach
b) secretion of hydrogen ions from the fluid in the renal tubules
c) passage of CO2 from the pulmonary capillaries to the alveoli
d) secretion of bicarbonate by the pancreas
e) production of red blood cells
2. In a patient with severe hypovolaemia, the:
a) physiological dead-space increases
b) arterio-venous oxygen difference decreases
c) alveolar-arterial oxygen difference increases
d) minute volume increases
e) arterial PCO2 increases
3. The group A antigen:
a) is present on the red cells of a group A patient
b) may occur in the saliva of a group A patient
c) is transmitted as an autosomal recessive characteristic
d) is more common than the group B antigen
e) is the most common cause of haemolytic disease of the newborn
4. The action of noradrenaline maybe terminated by:
a) monoamine oxidase in the nerve terminal
b) catechol-O-methyltransferase in the liver
c) catechol-O-methyltransferase in the nerve terminal
d) dopa decarboxylase in the nerve terminal
e) neuronal reuptake
5. An increase in the 2.3-DPG concentration in red blood cells occurs in:
a) anaemia
b) acclimatisation to altitude
c) stored blood
d) trained athletes
e) cyanotic heart disease

1. In normal cerebrospinal fluid, the:
a) chloride concentration is higher than in blood
b) glucose concentration is the same as in plasma
c) PCO2 is higher than in mixed venous blood
d) pH is the same as in arterial blood
e) bicarbonate concentration is the same as in arterial blood
2. When breathing out against a closed glottis, the:
a) intratracheal pressure rises
b) heart rate slows transiently
c) right ventricular output increases
d) left ventricular output has a sustained increase
e) systolic arterial pressure falls then rises
3. Changing position from standing to supine:
a) increases stroke volume
b) increases baroreceptor activity
c) increases the pulmonary blood volume
d) decreases leg vein pressure
e) decreases the heart rate
4. Vagal stimulation produces:
a) a fall in heart rate
b) an increase in atrial contractility
c) an increase in ventricular contractility
d) slowing of A-V conduction
e) a fall in stroke volume
5. The following are representative of myocardial afterload:
a) mean aortic pressure
b) mean pulmonary artery pressure
c) left ventricular end-diastolic volume
d) left ventricular end-diastolic pressure
e) the rate of rise of left ventricular pressure

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