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1. The carotid bodies:
a) have a low blood flow per gram of tissue
b) contain baroreceptors
c) respond to changes in pH
d) respond to small changes in PaO2
e) are located on the external carotid arteries
2. The following are examples of active transport:
a) sodium extrusion from cells
b) water reabsorption from the proximal convoluted tubule
c) potassium excretion in the distal convoluted tubule
d) glucose absorption from the gut
e) water reabsorption in the loop of Henle
3. Growth hormone and insulin have opposite effects on:
a) carbohydrate uptake by muscle
b) catabolism of fat
c) synthesis of fat
d) synthesis of protein
e) somatic growth
4. Stimulation of the tenth cranial nerve causes:
a) slowing of A-V conduction
b) constriction of coronary vessels
c) increased secretion of gastric acid
d) miosis
e) relaxation of the pylorus
5. An increase in sympathetic stimulation to the heart causes:
a) a fall in diastolic time
b) a fall in dP/dt
c) an increase in stroke volume
d) dilation of the coronary vasculature
e) an increase in myocardial oxygen consumption
6. If oxygen is added to inspired air to increase its partial pressure from 20 kPa (150 mmHg) to 60 kPa (450 mmHg):
a) dissolved oxygen will increase approximately three-fold
b) the oxygen content of the blood will increase approximately three-fold
c) the PaN2 will remain the same
d) the PaO2 will increase approximately three-fold
e) hypercarbia will be prevented
7. Pulmonary vascular resistance is increased by:
a) serotonin
b) hypocarbia
c) hypoxia
d) a fall in pH
e) adrenaline
8. On changing from the upright to the supine position:
a) baroreceptor activity decreases
b) leg vein pressure is reduced
c) the blood volume in the pulmonary circulation falls
d) stroke volume increases
e) renin activity increases
9. The fall in urine output associated with major trauma may be caused by:
a) haemorrhage
b) a rise in antidiuretic hormone activity
c) a fall in aldosterone activity
d) an increase in the level of circulating catecholamines
e) a rise in corticosteroid output
10. In the foetal circulation before birth:
a) the PO2 is higher in the ductus venosus than in the ductus arteriosus
b) blood can go from the right atrium to the aorta without passing through the left atrium and ventricle
c) the PO2 in the aortic arch is higher than in the descending aorta
d) blood flowing through the foramen ovale comes principally from the superior vena cava
e) blood passes through the ductus arteriosus because of the high pulmonary vascular resistance
11. In the central venous pressure waveform:
a) the a wave occurs after ventricular systole
b) the v wave is caused by atrial contraction
c) the a wave is absent in atrial fibrillation
d) the a wave corresponds with closure of the aortic valve
e) the v wave occurs during diastole
12. Renin activity is increased by:
a) an increase in circulating adrenaline
b) hypotension
c) increased sodium ingestion
d) an increase in aldosterone output
e) hypovolaemia
13. Acute antagonism of beta adrenergic receptors causes:
a) hyperglycaemia
b) peripheral vasodilatation
c) suppression of uterine contractility
d) pupillary dilatation
e) a reduction in cardiac output

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